Answer the following questions: Allocate the number of pages accordingly, I would assume that some questions would only need 1 paragraph whereas the others would require more (I would assume question 7 would require 1-2 pages). I have also attached screenshots of articles and textbook pages that you can refer to in order to answer these questions. These questions are based off of the chapters that I have attached below. Please answer based off the files i’ve attached. I have attached 2 chapters so far (these are ones you can use to answer questions 1 and 2). I will be attaching more soon. I will also be attaching other additional readings related to these and ones that can help to answer these questions. You can use outside sources just for personal knowledge on how to answer these questions however this assignment should not have any sources.
1. Please define pareto efficiency. Is a project or policy that is pareto efficient always cost-beneficial and therefore desirable for the society?
2. Governments need to decide how to allocate scarce tax resources when dealing with public goods. At the same time, citizens all have different preferences and willingness to pay for such goods. How do economists suggest that preferences should be added together and what are the pitfalls with this approach?
3. Many economic analyses in an environmental context cover long periods of time. How can you assure that the interests of future generations are fairly and adequately incorporated in such analyses?
4. Cost benefit analysis is frequently used to determine the financial and economic desirability of infrastructure projects or of policy proposals. In light of the concerns about diversity, inclusion and even structural racism, how are these issues factored into CBA? Does CBA as a methodology capture some of these impacts if they are relevant for a large project or policy? If it is insufficient, how should these issues be considered?
5. Technology and innovation has allowed resources to be used more efficiently in many industries and supported significant economic growth over the last decades. Some analysts argue that such innovation will be able to create economic growth indefinitely and overcome scarcity of resources. Do you agree? Why or why not?
6. Please describe in detail how hedonic pricing is used in the estimation of the value of environmental goods or services. Please provide a specific example of how this methodology would be applied and what potential problems might be with the approach. (please try to be creative and do not use the transportation as an example)
7. “In early december (2017), trump signed two presidential proclamations to shrink the Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante national monuments. The proclamations split the two monuments into several smaller sections. Bears Eats (…) will be shrunk from 1.35 million acres to 228,337 (…) and split into two separate monument tsections. Grand Staircase-Escalante (…) will be split into three sections and shrunk from 1.9 million acres to about 1 million. Shrinking the monuments opens the land up for oil and natural gas extraction. Trump said his decision was made to “reverse federal overreach and restore the rights of this land to you citizens.” A group of Native American tribes, conservation groups and others filed suits against the Trump administration over the proclamations.”
You have been hired to conduct a study assessing and monetizing the loss of social benefits resulting from the shrinking of these two national monuments. Please outline how you would estimate these dis-benefits, specifically the necessary data requirements, processes for collecting data and ways to monetize the policy impacts.
For more information on Sustainable Economics read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development
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