Organizational Leadership applies to more than the business organization. Leadership is important to all aspects of our communities; whether that leadership is focused on political, educational, or ethical practices. Leadership can be modeled by mentors and teachers in group or team settings. Three topics related to organizational leadership which may be researched for dissertation research include:
· Positive outcomes of Transformational Leadership on teen mothers and parenting education
· Benefits of positive leadership approaches in mentoring formerly incarcerated males re-entering mainstream society
· Organizational deficiencies in diversity leadership in Higher Education
A number of leadership problems will be the research focus, and will be addressed; discriminatory practices based off preconceivedgrouping, diversity, empathy, individual and leader accountability, role modeling by leaders, motivation techniques, and how societal changes within the United States must be prepared for the socio-cultural changes and the associated “cultural issues” of modern day society.
Teen pregnancy. According to Roxas (2008), “teen pregnancy and birth rates in the United States declined during the 1990s; nearly one in ten teenage young women still became pregnant in 2001, with half of these young women giving birth”. The rates of teen pregnancy is still high however, especially amongst the poor, working class African American and minority teens (Roxas, 2008). According to a 2014 report by The National Center for Health Statistics, teen pregnancy rates had declined an average of 51 percent across all racial groups between 1990 – 2009.
In 2011, Morton, Barling, Rhodes, Masse, Zumbo, and Beauchamp developed a questionnaire to measure how Transformational Leadership can impact teens and their parenting effectiveness. Morton et. al. referenced Popper and Mayseless’ (2003) explanation of transformational leadership being “analogous to effective parent–child dynamics in many respects” (p. 689), as both leadership and parenting should ultimately focus on the processes through which people elevate others to achieve important outcomes (Morton et al., 2010, p. 689).
Incarceration. Kazemian & Travis (2015) inform readers The United States leads the world in incarceration rates; “approximately 2.2 million people reside in the nation’s state and federal prisons and jails; a nearly 500% increase in the incarceration rate during the past three decades” (p. 356). Almost 8,000 incarcerated individuals are referred to as JLWOP – Juvenile Life Without Possibility of Parole offenders; serving a sentence for crimes committed before 18 years of age (Kazemian & Travis, 2015, p. 357). Sentencing reform has begun in many of the JLWOP cases in response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2010 ruling in Graham v. Floridawhich “held that life without parole is an unconstitutional cruel and unusual punishment for any juvenile convicted of a non-homicide crime (Walsh, 2011, p. 165).
In various instances, these individuals transition from incarceration to our communities. Providing mentoring services through various leadership approaches – situational and skills approach, for example, may help these individuals transition effectively and lower recidivism rates. Hunte and Esmail (2011) reference Steurer, Smith, and Tracy (2001), who stated “correctional educators for years have held the belief that education not only provides hope and an avenue for change for their students but also lowers the likelihood of future crime”. In Aurora, Colorado, a group of former offenders operate a non-profit organization whose mission is to reduce recidivism rates through positive role modeling, mentoring, creating educational and job opportunities among other wrap around services (Latif, 2016). Mr. Hassan Latif, in a personal interview, reports the success rate of his program boasts a 12% recidivism rate amongst its 600 participants over four years.
Diversity in Higher Education. Minority student enrollment in colleges and universities have gradually increased from previous years;” The representation of black students in post-secondary education increased from 10 to 15 percent in 2010 (Merolla & Jackson, 2014, p. 280), compared to less than 20 percent in 1980 (p. 280). Despite the increase in enrollment among various racial groups, there appears to be a lack of diversity within higher education leadership; the higher education sector is often categorized by its readiness to embrace liberal values of equality and diversity despite the lack of evidence showing changes within the diversity of its leadership (Bebbington & Ozbilgin, 2013, p. 15). With a lack of diversity in educational leadership, minority students may feel a sense of disconnect within the school community.
Educational leadership teams may work together to attract, employ and retain qualified minority leaders; leaders from various communities, genders, religions, etc. who demonstrate motivational qualities, who can relate to the non-traditional college students’ experiences and who have the emotional intelligence to influence others’ understanding of said differences.
Communities of interest may be an organization, along with education and correctional institutions. In some aspects, these organizations are business structures as well, however their end goal may not be monetary profit, but societal profits instead. Changes in laws and the cultural population of America is changing how the American dream looks, and we need to be prepared for these changes if we plan to remain a superpower. Instilling empathy and tolerance into the minds of our youth is where the changes may be most effective for our future.
Bebbington, D., & Özbilgin, M. (2013). The Paradox of Diversity in Leadership and Leadership
for Diversity. Management International, 17, 14-24,113,115,117. Retrieved from
Hunte, R. S., & Esmail, A. (2011). Learning to Change: Does Life Skills Training Lead to
Reduced Incident Reports Among Inmates in a Medium/Minimum Correctional Facility? Race, Gender & Class, 18(3), 291-315. Retrieved from https://login.libproxy.edmc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1348580777?accountid=34899
Kazemian, L., & Travis, J. (2015). Imperative for Inclusion of Long Termers and Lifers in
Research and Policy. Criminology & Public Policy, 14(2), 355-395. doi:10.1111/1745-9133.12126. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/ ehost/detail/
Latif, H. (2016, August 1). Personal Interview.
Merolla, D. M., & Jackson, O. (2014). Understanding Differences in College Enrollment: Race,
Class and Cultural Capital. Race and Social Problems, 6(3), 280-292.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12552-014-9124-3. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/1554149492?pq-origsite=summon&http://search.proquest.com/pqcentral
Morton, K. L., Barling, J., Rhodes, R. E., Mâsse, L. C., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R.
(2011). The Application of Transformational Leadership Theory to Parenting: Questionnaire Development and Implications for Adolescent Self- Regulatory Efficacy and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(5), 688-709. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/ehost/detail/ detail?
National Center for Health Statistics. (2014). NCHS Data on Teen Pregnancy: FactSheet April, 2014. Centers for Disease Control.Retrieved from
Roxas, K. (2008). Keepin It Real and Relevant: Providing a Culturally Responsive Education to Pregnant and Parenting Teens.Multicultural Education. 15(3), 2
– 9. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=10&sid=e4f1e4e5-64fb-4dd2-be65-
Steurer, S.J., Smith, L., & Tracy, A. (2001). OCE/CEA Three State Recidivism Study. Correctional Education Association, 1-65
Walsh, C. J. (2011). Out of the Strike Zone: Why Graham V. Florida Makes It Unconstitutional to use Juvenile-Age Convictions as Strikes to Mandate Life
Without Parole Under § 841(b)(1)(A). American University Law Review, 61(1), 165-204. Retrieved from https://login.libproxy.edmc.edu/login?
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