I have exam in those terms, and i need help. please if you are new





·      archaeocyathid 

o   Cambrian – sessile, reef-building marine organisms of warm tropical and subtropical waters that lived during the early (lower) Cambrian period.


·      bioturbation 

o   Cambrian – the reworking of soils and sediments by animals or plants. Its effects include changing texture of sediments (diagenetic), bioirrigation and displacement of microorganisms and non-living particles. Common bioturbators include annelids and bivalves (mussels, clams, gastropods).


·      Burgess Shale 

o   Cambrian – located in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, is one of the world’s most celebrated fossil fields. It is famous for the exceptional preservation of the soft parts of its fossils. At 505 million years (Middle Cambrian) old, it is one of the earliest fossil beds containing soft-part imprints.


·      Cambrian explosion 

o   Cambrian – the relatively rapid appearance, around 530 million years ago, of most major animal phyla, as demonstrated in the fossil record, accompanied by major diversification of organisms


·      Iapetus Ocean 

Cambrian/Ordovician – Precursor to the Atlantic. An ocean that existed in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago). The ocean disappeared with the Caledonian, Taconic and Acadian orogenies, when these three continents joined to form one big landmass called Laurussia.



·      Paleozoic Era 

o   Cambrian – the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning from roughly 541 to 252.2 million years ago. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian.


·      passive margin 

o   Cambrian – the transition between oceanic and continental crust which is not an active plate margin. It is constructed by sedimentation above an ancient rift, now marked by transitional crust. Continental rifting creates new ocean basins.



o   Cambrian – extinct marine arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Trilobites form one of the earliest known groups of arthropods. Trilobites finally disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian about 250 million years ago. The trilobites were among the most successful of all early animals, roaming the oceans for over 270 million years.



Ordovician – essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, has been used to describe clay beds of uncertain origin.


·      Cincinnati arch 

o   Ordovician – when continents crashed together during the two orogeny’s you have the Appalachian mountains and then a down drop into the Appalachian basin going west and then going west the next rise is the Cincinnati arch and the next basin is the Illinois basin.

epeiric (=epicontinental) seas 
Ordovician – a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions.


·      exotic terranes 

o   Ordovician – a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or “sutured” to crust lying on another plate. The crustal block or fragment preserves its own distinctive geologic history, which is different from that of the surrounding areas – hence the term “exotic” terrane. The suture zone between a terrane and the crust it attaches to is usually identifiable as a fault.


·      foreland basin 

o   Ordovician – a depression that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt. Foreland basins form because the immense mass created by crustal thickening associated with the evolution of a mountain belt causes the lithosphere to bend


·      Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) 

o   Ordovician – A diversification of animal life throughout the Ordovician period, just 40 million years after the Cambrian explosion, whereby the distinctive Cambrian fauna fizzled out to be replaced with a Palaeozoic fauna rich in suspension feeder and pelagic animals.


·      Queenston clastic

o   wedge (“delta”) 
Ordovician – 300-mile-wide clastic wedge of sediment deposited over what is now eastern North America during the late Ordovician period due to the erosion of mountains created during the Taconic orogeny. The wedge is thickest in a band running from New York State to Quebec and extends from the Catskill mountains to Lake Huron.


·      Taconic orogeny 

o   Ordovician – a mountain building period that ended 440 million years ago and affected most of modern-day New England. A great mountain chain formed from eastern Canada down through what is now the Piedmont of the East coast of the United States. As the mountain chain eroded in the Silurian and Devonian eras, sediments from the mountain chain spread throughout the present-day Appalachians and midcontinental North America.[


·      barred (or restricted)

o   basin 
Silurian – A partially restricted sedimentary basin, where free movement of waters is impeded by the presence of a rock sill or sediment barrier. This restriction often results in anoxic or oxygen-poor waters, or, in arid areas, in evaporite deposition.


·      dolomite 
Silurian – Carbonate mineral


·      dolostone 

o   a rock composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium, often as a result of diagenesis. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone, or in old U.S. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.


Silurian –

o    an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids which include the largest known arthropods that ever lived. They are members of the extinct order Eurypterida (Chelicerata); which is the most diverse Paleozoic chelicerate order in terms of species.

Salina Group – salt, gypsum 


·      stromatoporoids 
Silurian –

o   a class of aquatic invertebrates common in the fossil record from the Ordovician through the Cretaceous. They were especially abundant in the Silurian and Devonian. They are useful markers whose form and occurrence can diagnose the depositional environment of sedimentary strata


·      Acadian orogeny 
Devonian –

o   a middle Paleozoic mountain building event (orogeny), especially in the northern Appalachians, between New York and Newfoundland. The Acadian orogeny most greatly affected the Northern Appalachian region (New England northeastward into the Gaspé region of Canada). The Acadian orogeny should not be regarded as a single tectonic event, but rather as an orogenic era. It spanned a period of about 50 million years, from 375 to 325 million years ago.


·      Berea Sandstone 
Devonian –

o    Traditionally, the Berea was considered to be of Mississippian age but recently it has been assigned a Late Devonian age. The Berea formed when sand was carried by streams into the Ohio sea from the Canadian Shield to the north and from the Catskill Delta to the east.


·      Catskill clastic wedge 
Devonian –

o   a unit of mostly terrestrial sedimentary rock found in Pennsylvania and New York. The Catskill is the largest bedrock unit of the Upper Devonian in northeast Pennsylvania and the Catskill region of New York

Columbus Limestone 
Devonian – a mapped bedrock unit consisting primarily of fossiliferous limestone, and it occurs in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia in the United States, and in Ontario, Canada. Shallow marine depositional environment.

Hunsruck Slate 
Devonian – ower Devonian lithostratigraphic unit, a type of rock strata, in the German regions of the Hunsrück and Taunus. It is a lagerstätte famous for exceptional preservation of a highly diverse fossil fauna assemblage.

Devonian/Pennsylvanian – a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues. These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus delaying decomposition. Lagerstätten span geological time from the Cambrian period to the present.

Ohio Shale 
Devonian – late Devonian unit; dark black shale that has a lot of organics, pyrite, sulfur, carbon; thought to represent a very stagnant ocean-type bottom

rain shadow 
Devonian – dry area on the lee back side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems casting a “shadow” of dryness behind them

Mississippian – index fossil of Mississippian

Bedford = Salem = Indiana Limestone 
Mississippian – a geological formation primarily quarried in south central Indiana, United States between Bloomington and Bedford. The limestone was deposited over millions of years as marine fossils decomposed at the bottom of a shallow inland sea which covered most of the present-day Midwestern United States during the Mississippian Period.

Black Hand Sandstone 
Mississippian – Blackhand Sandstone was formed over 300 million years ago when most of Ohio was covered by a shallow sea. Sand was eroded from distant mountains and floated down the streams into Ohio’s sea where it collected in a long, narrow delta. Then, the currents changed, and for a while the sands were deposited into the delta at an angle. This created what is called cross-bedding. When the currents returned to normal, the sand was once again deposited in the delta in flat, horizontal layers. Fine sand and silt was deposited over top of the heavy sands and buried it. The heavy weight of this covering compressed the heavy sands. As groundwater, with iron oxide in it, seeped through the layers of heavy sands the iron cemented the sands grains into solid rock. The groundwater slowly washed away the cement holding the particles of sand together and eventually began washing away the sand itself.

Mississippian – a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

Mississippian – denoting or relating to worldwide changes in sea level, caused by the melting of ice sheets, movements of the ocean floor, sedimentation, etc.

Appalachian (Allegheny) Orogeny 
Pennsylvanian – geological mountain-forming events that formed the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains. Occurred over at least five deformation events in the Carboniferous to Permian period. The orogeny was caused by Africa colliding with North America.

Pennsylvanian – alternating stratigraphic sequences of marine and non-marine sediments, sometimes interbedded with coal seams.

forams (incl. fusilinids) 
Pennsylvanian – The Fusulinida is an extinct order within the Foraminifera in which the tests (shells) are composed of tightly packed, secreted microgranular calcite. In advanced forms the test wall is differentiated into two or more layers. Loeblich and Tappan, 1988, gives a range from the Lower Silurian to the Upper Permian, with the fusulinid foraminifera going extinct with the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

Joggins, Nova Scotia 
Pennsylvanian – contains an unrivalled fossil record preserved in its environmental context, which represents the finest example in the world of the terrestrial tropical environment and ecosystems of the Pennsylvanian ‘Coal Age’ of the Earth’s history.

Pennsylvanian – known as scale trees — were a now extinct genus of primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plant related to the lycopsids (club mosses). They were part of the coal forest flora.

Linton, Ohio 

Mazon Creek, Illinois 
Pennsylvanian – conservation lagerstätte. The fossil beds are located in ironstone concretions, formed approximately 300 million years ago in the mid-Pennsylvanian epoch of the Carboniferous period. These concretions frequently preserve both hard and soft tissues of animal and plant materials, as well as many soft-bodied organisms that do not normally fossilize.

Milankovich cycles 
Pennsylvanian – the collective effects of changes in the Earth’s movements upon its climate

Permian Period – an extinct group of marine invertebrate cehalopods. Ammonites are excellent index fossils, and it is often possible to link the rock layer in which they are found to specific geological time periods. Their fossil shells usually take the form of planispirals, although there were some helically spiraled and nonspiraled forms (known as heteromorphs).

amnion/amniote/amniotic egg 
Permian Period – a group of tetrapods (four-limbed animals with backbones or spinal columns) that have an egg equipped with an amnios, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as anamniotes do.

Permian Period – group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians. This group also includes all extinct non-avian dinosaurs, many extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs.

Permian Period – became dominant during the Ordovician period, represented by primitive nautiloids. The class now contains two, only distantly related, extant subclasses. Any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda. These exclusively marine animals are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles (muscular hydrostats) modified from the primitive molluscan foot.

Permian Period – a group of Tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.[1] Living diapsids are extremely diverse, and include all crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tuataras, and birds. While some diapsids have lost either one hole (lizards), or both holes (snakes), or have a heavily restructured skull (modern birds), they are still classified as diapsids based on their ancestry.

Dunkard Group 
Permian Period – an area of rock, Early Permian in age, in the south of Ohio, southwestern Pennsylvania, West Virginia and the hilltops of the Georges Creek Basin of Maryland. It is one of the few areas of Permian sediment east of the Mississippi River. In addition, it is the youngest surface rock in the state of Ohio.

Permian Period – a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus. Nautiloids flourished during the early Paleozoic era, where they constituted the main predatory animals, and developed an extraordinary diversity of shell shapes and forms.

Serpent Mound Structure 
Permian Period – a 1,348-foot-long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound located on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio.

Permian Period – group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes. They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra, an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each

Permian Period – a group of the most advanced synapsids, and include the ancestors of mammals. Many of the traits today seen as unique to mammals had their origin within early therapsids, including an erect posture and lactation. Early Permian–Early Cretaceous

Mass extinctions – a total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or “low oxygen”

Mass extinctions – 80-90% extinction – took 5-6 million years to recover.

Siberian Traps 
Mass extinctions – form a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in the Russian region of Siberia. The massive eruptive event which formed the traps, one of the largest known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth’s geological history, continued for a million years and spanned the Permian–Triassic boundary, about 251 million to 250 million years ago.

Fish – an extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 360 to 150 million years ago). The group is ancestral to all extant landliving vertebrates.

Fish – the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.

Fish – among the first jawed fish. A class of armoured prehistoric fish, which lived from the mid Silurian to the end of the Devonian period. Their head and thorax were covered by armoured plates; the rest of the body was scaled or naked, depending on the species.

Fish – the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants, including the living and extinct amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Likely did not live on land.

body fossil 
Fossil Preservation – most common are from the hard parts of the body, including bones, claws and teeth. More rarely, fossils have been found of softer body tissues.

Fossil Preservation – A fossil formed when an animal, plant, or other organism dies, its flesh decays and bones deteriorate due to chemical reactions; minerals gradually enter into the cavity, resulting in a cast

Fossil Preservation – fossilized feces. Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils, as they give evidence for the animal’s behaviour (in this case, diet) rather than morphology.

Fossil Preservation – pseudofossils – a naturally occurring object that looks like a fossil but isn’t. Dendrites are twig-like looking things that are a mineral growth but look like fossils. NOT FOSSILS. Most dendrites are mangenise-oxides so they’re black

Fossil Preservation – the preserved remains or traces of animals (also known as zoolites), plants, and other organisms from the remote past.

Fossil Preservation – Molds and casts are types of fossils. When a dead organism is buried, it often decays completely, leaving behind only an impression in the rock in the form of a hollow mold. The hard parts are most likely to leave an impression, although sometimes so can soft parts. If the mold then fills with sediment, this can also harden, forming a corresponding cast.

Fossil Preservation – the scientific study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments.

Fossil Preservation – a naturally occurring object that looks like a fossil but isn’t.

Fossil Preservation – a metamorphic process that occurs under situations of intense temperature and pressure where grains, atoms or molecules of a rock or mineral are packed closer together, creating a new crystal structure. The basic composition remains the same.

Fossil Preservation – a form of fossilization in which the original organic material is gone and is replaced by mineral material. The most common/famouse is pyritization. Ohio is famous for pyritized brachiopods

Fossil Preservation – if you fill the hollow area of a shell with sediment and the shell rots away, the cast of sediment that is left over is the stinecurn (spelling)

trace fossil 
Fossil Preservation – geological records of biological activity. Trace fossils may be impressions made on the substrate by an organism: for example, burrows, borings (bioerosion), urolites (erosion caused by evacuation of liquid wastes), footprints and feeding marks, and root cavities.

conodont alteration index (CAI) 
Nonbio info from fossils – used to estimate the maximum temperature reached by a sedimentary rock using thermal alteration of conodont fossils. Conodonts in fossiliferous carbonates are prepared by dissolving the matrix with acid, since the conodonts are composed of apatite and thus do not dissolve. The fossils are then compared to the index under a microscope. The CAI is commonly used by paleontologists due to its ease of measurement and the abundance of Conodonta throughout marine carbonates of the Paleozoic.

Nonbio info from fossils – extinct chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta. For many years, they were known only from tooth-like microfossils now called conodont elements, found in isolation. Knowledge about soft tissues remains relatively sparse to this day.

diversity gradient 
Nonbio info from fossils – The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. Put another way, in the present day localities at lower latitudes generally have more species than localities at higher latitudes. The LDG has been observed to varying degrees in Earth’s past.

Ohio Clay 
ohio was once the clay/brick capital of the world



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