Hydraulic Fluid Effectivity Research In Low-Pace High-Torque Motors
This paper presents an investigation of the fluid viscosity properties that have an effect on the Low-Pace High-Torque (LSHT) efficiency of hydraulic motors. Low speed torque efficiency is important because it typically determines the minimal displacement (measurement) and working pressure of cellular hydraulic equipment. The viscosity, viscosity index, excessive-shear viscosity, piezoviscosity and shear stability of prototype fluids have been characterized. These hydraulic fluids have been evaluated in a full-scale hydraulic motor dynamometer. Geroler, axial piston and radial piston motors have been evaluated. Low-speed (1 RPM) testing has been carried out underneath constant strain conditions in accordance with the ISO 4392-1 customary test method. Startability testing has been carried out beneath fixed load situations in accordance with ISO 4392-2. In startability and 1 RPM testing, the axial piston motor exhibited a 6 p.c effectivity acquire with a excessive viscosity index hydraulic fluid. The radial piston and Geroler Motor motors confirmed much less of an enchancment. The results of this investigation reveal that high VI fluids improve the torque output of axial piston motors below startup and LSHT conditions.
Massa won simply at Interlagos, to the delight of the hometown crowd, not to say Jean Todt. Alonso got here second, followed by teammate Giancarlo Fisichella, then Schmacher and Raikkonnen. For the season, Michael finished second within the driver’s standings with 121 factors to Alonso’s 134. Massa was third with 80, besting Fisichella (72) and Raikkonnen (65). Within the constructor’s derby, the Scuderia was doubtless relieved to close the gap with Renault, ending just 5 points behind (201 to 206).
Sky wore a Saturn face on an all-steel physique that was four inches longer than the Pontiac’s but with the same common look. It additionally sported a spiffier cockpit and a $23,000 base price, about $3000 upstream of its sibling. That was owed to no-cost antilock brakes, air conditioning, cruise control and energy home windows/door locks, all choices for Solstice.
In 1935, when “senior” manufacturing was consolidated to make room for the new high-volume One Twenty, the Twelve gained a stroked 473-cid engine with 175 bhp, and shifted to 139- and 144-inch wheelbases. Tremendous Eights offered comparable physique styles on those self same chassis, as well as a trim 132-inch platform. Custom our bodies thinned rapidly as coachbuilders either went bankrupt or were purchased out, but a couple of have been all the time listed through 1942.