Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

A 48-year-old woman is admitted to the emergency room. Her family states she has been ill for 5 days with vomiting and diarrhea. She has been unable to take fluids for the past 2 days. She has no past major medical problems. Family history is positive for type 2 diabetes in her mother and sister. She takes no medications.

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On physical examination:
BP 110/80, P 96, R 22, BMI 34
Skin: dry with decreased turgor
HEENT: oral mucous membranes are dry
Lungs: clear to auscultation
Heart: regular rhythm with no murmur
Abdomen: soft bowel sounds present, no masses

On admission, the following laboratory tests were done:

Fasting blood sugar            250
Total cholesterol            265
Triglycerides                185
High Density Lipoprotein        35
Urine Specific gravity            1.028
Ketones                positive

The physician made a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

1. Reviewing the above history, physical examination, and laboratory data, which of the findings support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?

2. This is a new diagnosis for the patient and the nurse in her teaching needs to describe the pathophysiology of the disease. Provide a description of the important information that should be included.

3.  What are important dietary changes the patient needs to institute? Think about her BMI.

Mechanisms of Endocrine Control

The client was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained a significant head injury as well as severe damage to his back. The health care provider has ordered a stimulation test.

•    What is the rationale for ordering the stimulation test for this client?
•    Why would the nurse be concerned if the client sustained damage to his pituitary gland?
•    Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback in the endocrine system.
•    List advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic tests for endocrine dysfunction.

For more information on Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolic_syndrome#

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