Close Paraphrasing


1. Review the following resources on APA-style citing and referencing.

In-Text Citations: The Basics

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

APA-Style References Guide and Sample References Page APA-Style References Guide and Sample References Page – Alternative Formats APA-Style References Guide
•    References should be written using the 7th edition of APA style
•    Your references page should always be titled as follows, with the title centered on the top of a new page separate from the body of your paper:
•    List your references in alphabetical order by the author’s or authors’ last name (s).
•    For textbook and article titles, only capitalize the first letter of the title, the first letter after a period or colon in the title, and the first letter of any proper nouns in the title.
•    References should be double-spaced and written in size 12 Times New Roman font.
•    Indent your references starting with the second line of each reference.
•    After cutting and pasting a video or journal URL or DOI, right-click the link to remove the hyperlink.
•    Every source you cite should have an accompanying reference. Therefore, if you cite four different sources, you should have four references listed at the end of your paper.

Sample References for Various Types of Sources
For any other type of book:
Author’s last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital
letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.
For a textbook:
Author’s last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital
letter also for subtitle (# ed.). Publisher.
For a TED Talk:
Author’s last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED.    URL
For a peer-reviewed journal article:
Author’s last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of the article. Title of Periodical,
volume number(issue number), pages.

See the next page for a properly formatted sample APA-style references page!
Crider, A. (2020). Schizophrenia: A biopsychological perspective. Routledge.
Farrel, H.M. (2017). What is bipolar disorder? TED.

Feldman, R. (2019). Essentials of understanding psychology. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Ozcan, D., & Merdan, F. (2020). The effectiveness of video modeling for teaching daily living
skills to children with an autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Learning and
Teaching, 12(1), 42-54. 10.18844/jilt.v12i1.4560

2. Read the following course requirement for writing in psychology courses at Post University:

For all written work in this course, it is expected that you will write using your OWN words.  You are expected to discuss psychological concepts, theories, and research results.  In doing so, you will learn to communicate using the “language” and terminology of psychology. Although you will learn the language of psychology, it is critical that you communicate your learning by using your own words.  If you describe the theory or research results of others, you must paraphrase the main ideas in your own words (see the first link). Paraphrasing is the only way you can clearly show your instructor what you have learned. Paraphrasing is different from summarizing. Visit the second link to learn the difference:

Paraphrase: Write in Your Own Words


3. After watching the videos and reviewing the web links above, paraphrase the information below.  That is, re-write it in your own words.

The argument about nature versus nurture also referred to as heredity versus environment or nativism versus empiricism, is one of the oldest and most central theoretical issues within both psychology and philosophy. For example, have you ever heard someone say that “baby talk” will interfere with a child’s language development? If so, then you have heard an argument for the nurture side of the debate. Such a statement assumes that language development is mostly a matter of imitation: The child must hear language that is properly pronounced and grammatically correct in order to develop linguistic fluency. The nature side would counter that children possess some kind of internal mechanism to ensure that they develop fluent language, no matter how many “goo-goo-ga-gas” they hear from those around them. “Which side is right?” students invariably ask. If there were a simple answer to that question, the debate would have ceased long ago. Instead, the controversy continues to-day with regard to many developmental processes, including language development.
Philosophically, the nature side of the controversy was represented by the idealists and rationalists, principally Plato and René Descartes, both of whom believed that at least some knowledge is inborn. On the other side of the argument were a group of British philosophers called empiricists, including John Locke, who insisted that at birth the mind is a blank slate— in Latin, a tabula rasa. All knowledge, the empiricists argued, is created by the experience. From this perspective, developmental change is the result of external, environmental factors acting on a child whose only relevant internal characteristic is the capacity to respond. In contrast to both rationalists and empiricists, other philosophers believed that development involved an interaction between internal and external forces.

4. cite and reference your paraphrase using APA-style. Since the passage is taken directly from your textbook, you will cite and reference this source. For more information on Close Paraphrasing check on this:

What Is Ethical Judgment?

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