Cis 515 discussion post responses

CIS 515 discussion post responses.

There are two discussions here that need to be responded to thoroughly. Responses must be on APA format 150+words 1-2 legitimate verifiable sources per response.

Respond to the colleagues posts regarding:

• Many legacy systems require normalization. Identify at least two factors that should be considered in order to produce an optimal normalized set of tables when performing normalization. Include in your discussion a detailed example on how each factor would eliminate data redundancy.

• Optimal database design recognizes proper organization of table structures and relationships. Suggest at least two methods that can be used to improve the design of a database system.

JM post states the following:

Factors to Consider for an Optimal Normalization

Normalization refers to the process of organizing data on a database to reduce redundancy when designing a database. One of the factors to consider during normalization is naming conventions. The names used should describe the type of information contained in the database for easy data identification. Abbreviations and obscure acronyms should be avoided for names because they can easily obfuscate the meaning and can as well be challenging to remember. The naming system used across the entire database should be consistent and memorable.

It should as well provide information on users, filenames, and other related objects. Another factor to consider is the nature of the database. Tables should incur divided to ensure that data are well isolated to allow additions, deletion, and modifications without interfering with the entire database. Each field should have different information, which should be independent of the information on other grounds. It will reduce redundancy by eliminating the possibility of data duplication (Dennis et al. 12).

Method of improving the design of the database system

A properly designed database system enhance easy access to recent and accurate information. The method process of strengthening the design of database design includes normalization and storing binary data externally. Standardization ensures that data engage appropriately organized within the database. Normalization can incur achieved by using primary keys to ensure that each raw within the database system is unique. Using external data storage is also another method of improving database system design. It enhances the performance of the data and ensures easy access to the data. Refining primary keys as required for data granularity is also another method of improving database system design. The entity of using the granularity of low keys, atomic value ensures that the database is more detailed and specific (Coronel, 2016).

Coronel, Carlos, and Steven Morris. Database systems: design, implementation, & management.

Cengage Learning, 2016.

Dennis, Alan, Barbara Haley Wixom, and Roberta M. Roth. Systems analysis and design. John

Wiley & sons, 2018

LP post states the following:


Many legacy systems require normalization. Identify at least two factors that should be considered in order to produce an optimal normalized set of tables when performing normalization. Include in your discussion a detailed example of how each factor would eliminate data redundancy.


Normalization is a way to clean up the data by efficiently organizing. The guidelines have defined several levels of normalization, First Normal Form – Fifth Normal Form (1NF-5NF).  1NF is the lowest level and 5NF is the highest and is rarely seen. The most common forms seen in most organizations are 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF (Access Programmers, n.d.). The purpose of these levels is to eliminate redundant data. Keeping only related data stored in the same table ensures that data dependencies make sense. Both of these are important since they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensures that data is logically stored (Access Programmers, n.d.).

First Normal Form (1NF) are two fundamental rules for the organization of a database.

• Remove duplicate columns from the same table.

• For each group of related data, create separate tables and identify each row by using a unique column or set of columns, or better yet, a primary key.

Second Normal Form (2NF), in addition to 1NF, is removing duplicate data.

• Eliminate subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables (Access Programmers, n.d.).

• Create relationships between these entities and their predecessors by using foreign keys (Access Programmers, n.d.).

Third Normal Form (3NF) in addition to 1NF and 2NF

• columns that are not reliant on the primary key shold be removed (Access Programmers, n.d.).


Optimal database design recognizes proper organization of table structures and relationships. Suggest at least two methods that can be used to improve the design of a database system.


The use of small values improves performance by using the smallest values for data that application requirements will permit (UNL Staff, 2020). One example would be to store binary large object data (BLOB) externally. And only referencing the external data will improve performance and simplify access to it.

The use of views helps hide complexity, provide aggregate data, and restricts access to rows and columns (UNL Staff, 2020).

The use of Stored Procedures provides additional security through isolation of data and prevents SQL injection through assignment to variables. Stored procedures for data access are in agreement with the layered approach to data access and provides additional performance benefits due to the precompilation of code (UNL Staff, 2020).


Access Programmers. (n.d.). Normalizing the Table Design. Retrieved February 3, 2020, from Access Programmers:

UNL Staff. (2020). Database Design. Retrieved from University of Nebraska-Lincoln:

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