How Bath Towel Is Made – Material, Production Process, Making, Historical Past, Used, Composition, Product, Industry

Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric both cotton or cotton-polyester which might be used to absorb moisture on the physique after bathing. Bath towels are sometimes bought in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are at all times the most important of the three towels. Bath towels are typically woven with a loop or pile that is tender and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the body. Particular looms known as dobby looms are used to make this cotton pile.

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Bath towels are usually of a single shade but may be decorated with machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns (pre-decided computer program driven designs) or even printed in stripes. Since towels are uncovered to a lot water and are washed on hot-water wash settings extra often than other textiles, printed towels may not retain their sample very lengthy. Most towels have a two selvage edges or finished woven edges along the sides and are hemmed (minimize and sewn down) at the highest and backside. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the toweling, weave the towels, dye them, minimize and sew hems, and ready them for distribution. Others purchase the yarn already spun from other wholesalers and solely weave the toweling.


Till the early nineteenth century, when the textile industry mechanized, bath toweling might be relatively costly to purchase or time-consuming to create. There is some question how essential these sanitary linens were for the typical person-in any case, microfiber golf towel bathing was not almost as universally in style 200 years ago as it is right now! Most nine-teenth century toweling that survives is, indeed, toweling probably used behind or on prime of the washstand, the piece of furnishings that held the wash basin and pitcher with water in the days before indoor plumbing. Much of this toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven pure linen. Fancy ladies’ magazines and mail order catalogs feature fancier jacquard-woven coloured linen patterns (notably red and white) however these have been extra prone to be hand and face cloths. It wasn’t till the 1890s that the more tender and absorbent terry cloth replaced the plain linen toweling.

Because the cotton business mechanized on this country, toweling material could possibly be purchased by the yard as well as in finished goods. By the 1890s, an American house-spouse might go to the general store or order through the mail either woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling (terry cloth) or may purchase terry cloth by the ‘y’ard, cut it to the suitable bath towel size her family favored, and hem it herself. A wide range of toweling was available-diaper weaves, huck-abacks, “crash” toweling-primarily in cotton as linen was not commercially woven in this country in great amount by the 1890s. Weaving factories started mass manufacturing of terry cloth towels by the top of the 9-teenth century and have been producing them in related vogue ever since.

Raw Supplies

Raw materials include cotton or cotton and polyester, relying on the composition of the towel in production. Some towel factories buy the primary uncooked material, cotton, in 500 lb (227 kg) bales and spin them with synthetics so as to get the kind of yarn they need for manufacturing. However, some factories buy the yarn from a supplier. These yarn spools of cotton-polyester mix yarn is purchased in enormous portions in 7.5 lb (3.Four kg) spools of yarn. A single spool of yarn unravels to 66,000 yd (60,324 m) of thread.

Yarn have to be coated or sized to ensure that it to be woven more easily. One such business coating accommodates PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are generally used to whiten a towel before dyeing it (if it is to be dyed). Again, these bleaches differ relying on the producer, however may embrace as many as 10 substances (some of them proprietary) together with hydrogen peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to stay white, an optical brightener to make the white look brighter. Artificial or chemical dyes, of complex composition, which make towels both colorfast and shiny, may also be used.


Most towels usually are not specially designed in complex patterns. The overwhelming majority is easy terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn edges at top and bottom. Sizes differ as do colors depending on the order. More and more, white or stock towels are despatched to wholesalers or others to decorate with computer-pushed embroidery or decorate with applique fabric or decoration. This occurs in a different location and is commonly done by one other company.

The Manufacturing

Course of


– 1 As mentioned above, some factories spin their very own yarn for bath towels. If this is completed at the manufacturing facility, the manufacturer receives large 500 lb (227 kg) bales of either excessive or “middling grade” (of medium quality) cotton for conversion into yarn (quality will depend on the producer and quality of the towel in production). These bales are broken open by an automated Uniflock machine that nips a bit off the highest of each bale, opens it up and then lays it down. The Uniflock opening machine blends the cotton fibers together by repeatedly beating it so impurities fall out or are filtered out (these bales include many impurities within the uncooked cotton). The more pure fibers are blown by way of tubes to a mixing unit the place the cotton is blended collectively earlier than they’re spun. Higher quality towels use cotton with fibers which can be blended collectively thrice before spinning. In some factories, the cotton is blended with polyester during this blending process.

– 2 The mixed fibers are then blown through tubes to carding machines where revolving cylinders with wire teeth are used to straighten the fibers and proceed to remove impurities earlier than spinning. The cotton fibers, while not yet yarn, are shaping up into parallel fibers in preparation for spinning.

– 3 These parallel fibers are then condensed into a sliver-a twisted rope of cotton fibers. These slivers are sent into one other machine during which they are blended again and despatched between different rollers for straightening. The last word goal is long, straight, parallel fibers as a result of they produce stronger yarns. (Stronger yarns require much less twisting which additionally produces strong yarns but makes them much less delicate and absorbent. If you loved this article therefore you would like to acquire more info relating to microfiber towel price generously visit our own web site. ) The fibers are wound on a large roll and microfiber golf towel despatched on a cart and fed into the combing machine.

– Four Fibers are combed right here, additional straightening the fibers with a finer set of wire teeth than used on the carding machine. Combing removes the shorter fibers, which are coarser and woollier, leaving the finer, longer, silkier cotton fibers for spinning into yarn. Once combed, the fibers are formed into a twisted rope sliver once more.

– 5 The slivers travel to roving machines where the fibers are additional twisted and straightened and formed into rovings. The roving body additionally barely twists the fibers. The result’s an extended roving of cotton, which is then wound onto bobbins in the final step earlier than spinning.

– 6 Now the roving is prepared for spinning. The bobbin is spun on a ring-spinning machine, which mechanically attracts out or pulls the cotton roving out into a single strand. The fibers primarily catch each other to form one steady thread and twists the thread barely as it’s pulled or As soon as the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as large rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and different proprietary components. All toweling have to be dyed pure white before it’s dyed any colour.

spun. Once the yarn is spun, it is robotically wound on giant wheels that resemble rounds of cheese when full of thread.


– 7 Warp is longitudinal threads in a bit of woven material which can be tightly stretched or warped on a beam. Latitudinal threads called weft or microfiber towel price filler are passed under and over the warp to form the fabric. The large spools of just-spun cotton are ready to be warped or wound on a beam that will probably be inserted into the loom for weaving. If the yarn is bought, the 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) spools are readied for warping. A warping beam is then warped by which threads are anchored and wrapped to a large beam in hundreds of parallel rows. Completely different towel widths require completely different numbers of warp threads.- Eight These big beams, stuffed with wrapped warp threads, are positioned into a rack that holds up to 12 beams and sized in preparation for weaving. The threads have to be sized or stiffened to make the piece easier to weave. PVA starch, urea, and wax are rolled onto and pressed into the yarn. The threads are then run over drying cans-Teflon-coated cans with steam heat emanating from with-in. This helps to dry the warp threads rapidly. (1,000 warp ends are pulled over nine cans to dry.) These beams, with coated threads, at the moment are despatched to the looms.


– 9 The beams are picked up by a pallet jack or hydraulic carry truck and transported to looms. These looms vary in width however may be as slender as eighty five in (216 cm) or as large as 153 in (389 cm). (Not surprisingly, the wider the loom, the slower the weaving because it takes longer for weft threads to cross the warp.) The beams are lifted onto the looms mechanically with a warp jack, which may bear the weight and measurement of the beam.- 10 Towels are woven on dobby looms, which means every loom has two units or warp and thus two warp beams-one warp is named the ground warp and forms the physique of the towel and the other is named the pile warp and it produces the terry pile or loop. Each set of warp threads is rigorously fed by way of a set of steel eyes and is hooked up to a harness. (Harnesses are separate, parallel frames that can change in their vertical relationships to each other.) These harnesses mechanically raise and lower these warp threads in order that the weft or filler might be passed between them. The intersection of the warp and weft is woven fabric. The filler yarn is programmed so that it is loosely laid into the woven fabric. When this loose filler is overwhelmed or pressed into the fabric, the slack is pushed up becoming a little loop. After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and reduce into standardized sizes.

Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are actually shot across these large looms at prime-speeds-these towel-making looms might have 18 shuttles fired throughout the warp from a firing cylinder. One shuttle follows proper behind the subsequent. As quickly because the one shuttle shoots throughout the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported back to firing cylinder and is shot throughout again. A typical towel-weaving machine has 350 shuttle insertions in a single minute-nearly six shuttles fired throughout every second. Thus, towels are woven very quickly on these giant mechanized dobby looms. In one small towel-making manufacturing facility, 250 dozen bath towels might be made in a single loom in a single week-and there are 50 looms within the manufacturing facility.


– 11 As soon as the toweling is made (it is one long terry cloth roll and has no starting or end), it’s wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as huge rolls of fabric and put right into a water bath with bleaching chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary components. All toweling must be dyed pure white earlier than it is dyed any shade. The wet toweling laden with chemicals is then subjected to tremendously high temperatures. The heat makes the chemicals react, bleaching the towel. The roll is then washed a minimum of once and as many as thrice in a large washer to get all chemicals out of the toweling. The toweling is dried, and whether it is to remain white toweling, it is ready to be cut at the highest and bottom, lock-stitched sewn, and have a label attached (all of this is finished with one machine).


– 12 If it is to be dyed, the massive, dried uncut rolls are taken to giant vats of chemical dyes, which have confirmed over time to offer colorfast toweling after in depth residential laundering. After being immersed in the vat, the toweling is eliminated and pressed between two heavy rollers which forces the dye down into the toweling. A thorough steaming units the shade. The toweling is once more steam-dried, fluffed within the drying process, after which the dyed towels are prepared for chopping, hemming, and labeling.

Chopping, folding, and packaging

– thirteen Remaining visual inspection of the reduce and hemmed towels happens and they are handfolded and conveyed to packaging, the place automated packaging gear varieties a bag around the towels and UPC labels are connected to the luggage. These packaged towels are despatched to the stock room, awaiting transport out of the plant.

High quality Management

Towels are rigorously checked for quality management throughout the production process. If yarn is bought, it’s randomly checked for weight and must be the standard established by the corporate (lighter yarn spools point out the yarn is thinner than desired and should not make as sturdy toweling). Bleach and dye vats are periodically checked for acceptable chemical structure.

During the weaving process, some firms go the cloth over a lighted inspection desk. Right here the weavers and quality inspectors monitor the yoga towel for weaving imperfections. Barely unevenly woven towels may be straightened out and touched up. However those that can’t may be labeled “seconds” or imperfect or completely rejected by the company. As in all features of the method, visual checks are a key to high quality management-all concerned in the process understand minimum requirements and monitor the product always.


Probably harmful byproducts are sometimes mixed in the water that is used to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric. Notably, the bleaching process consists of components (peroxides and other caustics) that cannot be discharged untreated into any water supply. Many toweling factories run their own water remedy plants to insure that the water the plant discharges meets minimal requirements for pH, temperature, and many others.

Where to Study More


Montgomery Ward & Co. Spring and Summer time 1895 Catalogue and Purchaser’s Guide. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1969.

Tate, Blair. The Warp: A Weaving Reference. Ashville, NC: Lark Books, 1991.


Fieldcrest Cannon. “The Making of Royal Velvet Towels.” Unpublished script for a video on towel production. Kannapolis, NC, 1998.

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