(2) responses to anatomy discussions from classmates- 125 words each


Post 1: Endocrine and Exocrine

The endocrine system is a group of glands within the body that produce hormones that helps the body with metabolism, sexual function, among additional things. On the other hand, a gland “is a cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere within the body or for elimination as waste” (Saladin, 2018, P. 163). “Glands are composed of epithelial tissue, but they also consist of connective tissue” (Saladin, 2018, P.163). There’re numerous glands all over the body and they all fall into categories under two main classification know as endocrine and exocrine.

            Endocrine glands secrete chemical substances into the bloodstream or tissues of the body. Endocrine glands are characterized as being ductless, which means they produce and release their chemicals/ hormones into tissue. The chemical substances that is secreted from the endocrine gland are called hormones. Endocrine glands “contain high density of blood capillaries and secrete their products directly into the blood” (Saladin, 2018, P. 164). Examples of endocrine glands include ovaries, “adrenal gland, thyroid, and pituitary glands” (Saladin, 2018, P. 164).

Exocrine glands are glands that secrete substances in ducts, which is “an epithelial tube that conveys their secretion to the surface or the mucosa of the digestive tract” (Saladin, 2018, P. 164). Within the exocrine glands’ substances can be secreted through sweat, mammary glands, and tear glands into the cavity of another organ such as the mouth, or intestine (Saladin, 2018, P. 164). Exocrine secretions have extracellular effects in aid of digestion of food whereas endocrine glands have intracellular effects which alter cell metabolism (Saladin, 2018, P. 627-628).

Glands within the exocrine can be classified by form such as a simple gland that consist of a single duct and a compound gland that have a branching duct. There is also two different form of the secretory portion of the gland- tubular and acinar/alveolar. “Tubular glands have a uniform diameter, and acinar/ alveolar forms a dilated sac. The gland is known as the acinar and the sac is known as acinus or alveolus” (Saladin, 2018, P. 164). If they both contain secretory cells, they are known as tubuloacinar gland.

Post 2:  Diabetes Mellitus: describe the causes and pathology of diabetes mellitus vs normal function

Our bodies require glucose for cellular energy and this sugar comes from two sources the food we eat and our livers which store and produce glucose (Mayo Clinic, 2018). When sugar is ingested it will enter the bloodstream and aided by the insulin that the pancreas secretes, it will go inside muscle and tissue cells to be used as energy. Whatever glucose is not immediately used for energy is stored in our livers as glycogen. When our body’s glucose levels are suboptimal, our liver will “break down stored glycogen into glucose” (Mayo Clinic, 2018) to regulate glucose levels. However, mostly due to our horrendous diets, and partly due to genetics, this normal process is disrupted in a metabolic disease called diabetes mellitus.

            There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type I and type II. Type I diabetes was previously known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes, however, since type I and type II diabetes can occur at any age and people diagnosed with either type can use insulin to manage it, they are now distinguished by type (Saladin, 2018, p. 661). Type I diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetically, some people a predisposed to having their immune system destroy the cells in the pancreas that create insulin (Mayo clinic, 2018). In destroying these insulin-producing cells, the body will be unable to effectively transport glucose from the bloodstream into the cells and the affected person will have excess glucose floating around in their bloodstream. Environmental factors, such as overconsumption of sugars and carbohydrates (which break down to glucose in the blood), will make the situation worse since the body’s ability to transport glucose into cells is already impaired.

            Type II diabetes is the more common form of diabetes. It differs from type I in that the problem is not decreased insulin, but that the cells do not want to respond to the action that insulin intends to perform (Mayo clinic, 2018). Initially the body may even have an abundant amount of insulin, but with the cells not responding, over time the pancreas will decrease the amount of insulin it produces (Saladin, 2018, p. 662). Being overweight can also cause type II diabetes because excess body fat will cause chemical reactions that can interfere with the body’s ability to transport glucose into cells, therefore causing excess glucose to linger in the blood stream.

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