How to Do a Capstone Project | Academic Writing Guide

Capstone projects are an opportunity for students to demonstrate the skills and competencies they gained in a course. Graduate programs typically require students to complete a capstone project during the final year of a degree course. Even so, capstone projects take several different forms, including case studies, focus groups, research studies, surveys, and outcome-based evaluations. However, your project type and complexity will depend on course and tutor requirements.

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Not only does a capstone project allow one to substantiate their learning skills, but it also adds to one’s employment portfolio. What is more, completing a capstone project enables one to bridge the gap between theory and practice in exploring solutions to a problem.

Nowadays, degree programs require students to present a defense of a project. Its goal is to improve a learner’s public speaking skills while helping one to express thoughts clearly.

Guide to Writing a Capstone Paper

In this piece, we present an informative guide detailing how to write a capstone project. So, read on through to learn more.

What Is The Difference Between The Capstone Project And Thesis?

Perhaps you are wondering, is Capstone a thesis? If your answer is Yes, then wonder no more as this section clarifies the difference between the two.  Primarily, capstone projects address specific issues or problems in a field of study, whereas a thesis focuses on a broader but general question. Typically, doctoral capstones apply existing research to deliver a solution to real-world problems. For this reason, capstone projects take many different forms. In comparison, a thesis attempts to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Activities involved in writing a thesis include hypothesis development, data analysis, results evaluation, conclusion building, and comparison with actual results.

Capstone Project

In addition to that, capstone projects conclude undergraduate programs during as one completes graduate studies. Some graduate programs let students choose between the two. Even so, both projects incorporate internship work or a practicum. Besides that, capstone reviews existing literature as compared to a thesis that introduces new ideas or information.

Tips on Writing a Capstone Project

# 1. Create an Interesting Topic

Before beginning your capstone project, you need to identify an interesting topic. But you might ask, how do I do so? Begin by taking notes of potential ideas that occur to you during classes. Then, narrow down your ideas to those that seem manageable. Consult your classmates or faculty staff if you find it challenging deciding on a topic.

However, focus only on topics and ideas connected to your field of study. Otherwise, you might find it challenging developing the content of your capstone project. Evaluate how your knowledge and experience fit in with the overall goals of the project at hand. As a result, you will obtain useful insights for highlighting the skills and knowledge gained throughout your graduate program.

#2 Draft a Capstone Project Proposal

Often tutors ask students to submit a capstone project proposal. Project proposals are about 200 words or more in length. But how does one draft a capstone project proposal? Here are a few tips to consider:

Capstone Project Proposal

  • Discuss the topic you selected and the reason you want to write about the idea.
  • Detail your learning experience and provide a contextual analysis of the topic’s background.
  • Evaluate the credibility of available information sources.
  • Explain the research methodology you intend to use in analyzing the various aspects of your capstone project.
  • List all required workspaces and human subjects’ approvals.
  • Outline the aims and objectives you want to accomplish through this project.

Bonus Tip: You need to develop a literature and methodology section if you are writing a broader proposal. Often, your tutor will provide you with an outline of the relevant parts. However, be sure to adhere to the presented framework to assure your tutor of your interest in the topic.

# 3: Prepare Your Material and Sources

In this step, identify credible and reputable sources related to the project topic. Do so by evaluating coursework material or the recommended literature. This material will serve as the basis of your project. Next, create a folder of your sources where you save all references and helpful URLs.

Most importantly, structure all sources using appropriate tags to simplify navigation. Also, identify both the primary and secondary sources for developing the literature review section. Finally, group all sources by category.

# 4: Create a Structure for Your Paper

Although capstone projects differ in their composition, having a good outline helps to organize the flow of the constituent parts logically. Below is a typical structure:

Capstone Project Proposal

  • Title page:

Contains the project title, your name, admission number, and the name of your supervisor. Pay attention to the layout and formatting of the title page as different academic referencing styles differ in their conventions.

  • Abstract:

Consists of a full summary of the entire project in about 150 to 250 words. It should highlight the significant sections of your project from beginning to end. Typically, an abstract provides readers with an authoritative overview of a capstone project.

  • Table of Contents:

A TOC is a list of the content of your paper accompanied by the relevant page numbers. Its purpose is to allow the reader to navigate seamlessly across a document.

  • Introduction:

This section introduces the topic area and the rationale for the study. Besides, it contains a statement of the problem that the research paper addresses. Some capstone projects may require one to include a detailed problem description that spells out the project’s overall goal and scope.

  • Literature Review:

A required section in capstone projects that provides contextual background information gleaned from existing literature. Only use reliable and up-to-date references to develop this section.

  • Methods:

This part of the project covers the steps undertaken during research. Include enough information so that other researchers can replicate the study if they need to.

  • Results and Discussion:

Use this section of your paper to inform the audience of the results of your study. Here you present the statistical data and its interpretation. If necessary, include graphs, charts, and tables. Plus, you need to interpret the data and any emergent themes. Pay attention to how the method section produced the results.

  • Conclusion and Recommendations:

Include a discussion and a summary of your study’s main findings. Also, use this section to detail conclusions derived from surveys and interviews. Here you connect the research findings to the problem identified in the introduction. Also, use this section to outline your recommendations for future research or application of your results.

  • References/Bibliography:

Include all resources used to develop your capstone project. Note that depending on the referencing style used listed References should have a corresponding citation in the body of your work. But bibliographies can contain both cited and non-cited references.

# 5: Create a Timetable

Crafting a capstone project is a time-intensive undertaking. You need to apportion your time wisely. So, create a schedule with tasks and deadlines. As you progress, review your timetable as some functions are easier to deal with while others may require more time. Use your phone, computer organizer, or project management software to track your progress.Capstone Project Proposal

# 6: Now, Write, Write, And Write!

A project’s thesis statement is its foundation. Hence, craft a sharp, narrow, and specific thesis statement. Avoid creating a broad thesis statement as you might not cover all the required aspects. Remember, you can begin writing a project from any point. Only write the introduction after writing the other sections. One can only write effective introductions after getting conversant with a project’s ideas, topic, and flow. So, hold off writing the opening until you are deep into the project. Also, always highlight the project’s major issue or problem as well as its limitations.

Use the literature review section to summarize key findings of existing studies related to your topic. Provide brief conclusions and analyses of each primary and secondary source. Then critique each resource while noting existing knowledge gaps. Finally, use quotes liberally but avoid overdoing it.

In the methods section, analyze the procedure of your research effort. Use it to provide readers with an in-depth look at the steps you followed to collect, analyze, and evaluate data. Provide a rationale for the methods used and discuss the pros and cons of each method.

Under the results section, carefully describe the data collected in the study. Use tables, charts, and graphs to visualize statistical or other data.  Provide an interpretation and description of data in the conclusion, summarize findings, and propose recommendations for further research and their implication. Connect the study’s results with the problem.

# 7: Do Not Forget To Proofread!

Reread your initial draft and make changes where required. Go through all sections to ensure completeness and logical accuracy. Edit out meaningless and fluffy sentences while adding more information to complete your thoughts. Look for incorrect grammar, typos, and other writing mistakes. Doing so equips your project with an academic tone. Finally, format your text accordingly and for tidiness. Consider having a colleague, peer or writer experienced in academic writing review and provide feedback on your work.Capstone Project Proposal

# 8: Prepare Your Defense

Expect to defend your project before a project committee. Remember that the effectiveness of your presentation determines the evaluation of the entire project. Typically, one reveals the core of the research area, discusses the research project, and narrates project findings. Besides that, you must respond to questions from the committee regarding your research and its conclusions. Often, committees are aware of a project’s content as they have read your proposal and initial draft. For this reason, defenses are like discussions rather than presentations.

Usually, students present their defense to a committee of three to four faculty members. Note that sometimes proceedings are open to the public as well. During the presentation, you must address the committee, review existing literature, a project’s methodology, its findings conclusion, and recommendations. We recommend developing a PowerPoint presentation to help you visually organize the flow of your defense. However, avoid reading directly from the slides. Doing so comes across as unprofessional and is awkward too. Also, bring along hard copies of the presentation to cope with technological deficiencies.

Do’s And Don’ts of Writing a Capstone Project

Given the complexity, length, and demanding nature of a capstone project, follow these do’s and don’ts to simplify the writing process:


  • Choose an appropriate referencing style for your study area or field.
  • Track your progress daily using a diary. Note down any changes you make of the capstone assignment.
  • Start your project with an opener that grabs the attention of your readers. Also, close the project on a high note.
  • Adhere to all English grammar, punctuation, syntax, and style rules.
  • Submit your proposal and paper in due good time and the right format.
  • Ensure you coordinate with your supervisor and apply their recommendations and advice.
  • Spend enough time to craft an appealing capstone project topic.


  • Avoid using clichés. Instead, write in an academically oriented manner.
  • Never leave the writing of your capstone project until the last minute.
  • Do not miss any necessary and essential details.
  • Do not forget the purpose or goal of your capstone project.
  • Never fail to proofread your text and correct any mistakes you find.
  • Never rush to compose and finish a capstone paper.
  • Do not begin working on the project without the prior consent of your supervisor.
  • Avoid using unreliable and out of date sources.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

When writing your capstone project, avoid the mistakes listed below.

Rushing the project:

Ideally, you should begin your project early enough. Otherwise, squeezing everything in a short duration compromises the quality of your project.


Avoid superfluous rephrasing, repetition, or fluffy pieces to increase the word count. Only use meaningful sentences that confer information and add value to your paper.Capstone Project Proposal


 Copying the work of others without attribution is a grave academic infringement. Instead, paraphrase correctly and attribute quotes to their rightful authors. Failure to adhere to these principles may result in the cancellation of your program or credentials.

Always remain focused:

Capstone research projects are time-intensive and extensive. As a result, you might get distracted or run out of steam before finishing a project.  Then again, losing focus results in the loss of precious time and expensive delays.

Insufficient analysis:

With capstone projects, state relevant information obtained from credible sources. However, you should critically analyze and elaborate on your material. Remember, education institutions maintain submitted projects in a library for future review by aspiring candidates. Therefore, exert yourself to provide highly analytical work. Doing so requires you to read, analyze, and summarize your primary and secondary sources adequately.

Choosing a Capstone Project Topic

Most graduate students experience difficulties choosing between a host of available medical capstone project ideas for their project. But the process of selecting a project topic should not confound you. If you have leeway in choosing an issue in any subject area, choose a topic that you are passionate about. Subsequently, you get to write about a topic connected to your interests and experiences.  For example, you might need capstone project ideas education for a 45-page long project.Capstone Project Proposal

Use the tips below to accomplish your goal:

  • The first obstacle to choosing a project topic is the potential of relating a problem to several disciplines instead of one. So, allocate enough time to think about what captivated you during coursework. Glance through notes you made in previous years. Although these notes do not constitute a topic yet, they will point you in the right direction nonetheless.
  • After that, consider your area of study, the material you have covered so far. For simplicity, request your tutor for a list of recommended topics related to your course or review previous project submissions. Base your capstone project topic on what you found or create a unique topic. However, you might need the confirmation of your counsellor before proceeding.
  • Do not let changes intimidate you. During the research phase, you might find that the selected topics are deficient in meeting the goals of a scientific study. So, what can one do? Adjust the topic according to the available information sources. For example, potential project examples in medicine include sanitation, addiction issues, and application of evidence-based practices in solving problems related to clinical practice.

Potential Capstone Nursing Ideas

  1. How to manage professional stress in the health care industry. Over the years, stress is a critical issue that contributes to the buildup of health issues for healthcare workers. Accordingly, the potential aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to stress in these environments.Capstone Nursing Ideas
  2. Another interesting topic is the impact of abortion on women’s health. Alternatively, one might choose to explore the effect of losing a pregnancy. A possible aim of this study would be to identify the impacts that these outcomes have on females.
  3. Also, one may choose to investigate the role of education on the lives of mothers and children. For this study, you could focus on understanding the ideas, concepts, and problems that affect programs geared towards improving healthy living styles and conditions.
  4. Other research topics might include:
    • Researching the attitudes of nurses towards the prevention of relapse in psychiatric patients.
    • A capstone project to address the maternal health status of women in the Netherlands. The proposed study should include a statistical review of existing maternal admission data covering the percentage of births and risk factors related to maternal mortality and morbidity between 2007 and 2018.
    • A study to investigate the level of health risk awareness associated with body piercing and tattooing among students at a local university.

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